Reports of Meetings at Southend-on-Sea

Southend-on-Sea Pier today
(picture by Mrs Heather Feather)

The pier as your ancestors would have known it

December 2018
Lest We Forget: the history and work of the CWGC by Glenn Hearnden
Look no further than this month's speaker if you want a thorough history of the Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Glenn Hearnden couldn't be more qualified to talk on the subject for that's how passionate he is about the organisation he knows so well.

As recent as Balaclava, Sebastopol, Crimea and the Boer War conflicts respect for the dead was practically zero. Unless, that is, one happen to be 'of the right family'. The ordinary soldier was seen as cannon fodder, not that a similar attitude didn't exist during the Great War, which, after all, was still in the hands of the same group of individuals: we won't mention any names.

It took someone like Sir Fabian Ware to recognise the need for change - that every man who fought and died in the war, regardless of creed or culture, deserved the right to be honoured. They had families and loved ones like anyone else. Such was the strength of his reasoning. In this he gained support from Generals Nevil Macready and Douglas Haig, Winston Churchill and the American millionaire banker Burdett Coutts. Others were soon to follow. He had in mind to construct a series of monuments at a number of sites throughout the world. What was first set in motion all those years ago is the framework behind which the CWGC continues its work caring and maintaining them today.

The bodies of those who died during battle were mostly buried in mass graves near where they fell. Imagine trying to identify someone not knowing who they were, or which regiment they belonged to. The dogtag (1916) provided all the necessary information. It couldn't account for those who'd lost their tags. Most were never identified and were simply listed as 'missing presumed dead'. The construction of monuments went somewhere towards righting that wrong, "The Grave of the Unknown Soldier" as it came to be known.

There are some 2,500 war cemeteries in 153 countries. Other memorials also come under that mandate. This takes into account graveyards, cemeteries and memorials in many towns and villages. There are 4 cemeteries in Southend: Sutton Road. No. of casualties: 289; North Road. No. of casualties: 25; St John the Baptist. No. of casualties: 2; Borough Council. Civilian War Dead: 65.

The CGWC website ( couldn't be easier to use. It also contains a 'how to search' helpline, a step-by-step guide on the best way to go about obtaining what you need. Gather as much information beforehand (from the family and from other websites, e.g. Ancestry's military records). This will better one's chances of success. Believe me, there's lots to find once you do. Remember this is a worldwide facility covering both world wars.
Martin Haydn Roberts (ESFH 3860)
November 2018
It's been quite a while since Meryl Catty last came to Southend, so it was nice to welcome her back again and listen to another of her talks.
On this occasion Meryl spoke about the Goodwins of Twickenham, who come from her husband's side of the family. For that, we have to step back 300 years.

On 8 June 1718, at St John's, Wapping, Samuel Goodwin and Susannah Wyatt became husband and wife. Soon afterwards they would return to Samuel's home parish of Twickenham where Samuel continued work as a plumber whilst Susannah took to her duties of homemaker. Together they went on to have 15 children, which wasn't uncommon for couples during the Georgian period. This was countered by the number of deaths in any one year: London was its own breeding ground for epidemics, brought about by poor living conditions, inadequate sanitation, infectious diseases, often coming in from other countries, all of which effected the very young - Susannah's children amongst them.

We know that because her Little Book tells us these details, including births, marriages and deaths within the family; unusual changes in the weather; the annual Frost Fairs; the London Earthquake of 1749; 'the flood at Twickenham that was one foot higher than it was 115 Years ago' - British Evening Post, March 15 1774.

Susannah is writing for herself, but that's something we can share. Richmond Local Studies have the book. So if you have any Goodwins or Wyatts in the family that you think might be connected, do get in touch and make arrangements to see it. She also left a will in March 1780, viewable online via

Susannah Goodwin's 85 years saw her outlive several members of her own family (besides her children who died so tragically young - before their first birthday in most instances). She also happens to have eclipsed the reign of 5 monarchs. But then Susannah was destined for longevity in whatever century she chose to exist. Living in Twickenham probably helped!
Martin Haydn Roberts (ESFH 3860)
October 2018
THATCHING The life of a present-day thatcher - recorded on video in 2016 by G. Hudgell.
Mr Hudgell sadly died in June this year. We might think of this film as his legacy, as a tribute to all who work to preserve the many traditions which make our countryside what it is, and not some chocolate-box version of something it never has been.

I've devised the following Question and Answer session only because all 3 of our computers said NO to the video when a third of the way through. Luckily Steve the thatcher, who appears on the film (a man with 50 years experience behind him), took centre-stage to provide the 10 questions and answers that make up this quiz on thatching.

1. What's the best straw for thatching?
2. Where do thatcher's get their straw from?
3. Why throw water over fresh straw?
4. What is the average lifespan of a thatched roof?
5. What special qualities have reed and straw over tiles?
6 Which is more expensive, reed or straw?
7. Other than to cover the roofs of barns, cottages, houses, and the odd church, what is straw used for? Again, think thatching.
8. What frequently gets in the way of many of today's thatchers?
9. Any idea what the word 'yelm' means?
10. For how long has Steve's family been thatchers?

Answers to the quiz on thatching 1. Long straw given its strength and durability.
2. Just about anywhere. Polish straw is much in demand these days.
3. To give it flexibility prior to thatching.
4. From 35 - 75 years; some are known to last longer than 75 years.
5. Both are natural products, in the sense that they 'wax and wane' with the seasons. Their reaction to the elements is part of their strength.
6. Reed. It tends to last longer. One could also argue that reed is visually more attractive than straw. But then it's a buyer's market for those prepared to pay for it.
7. To cover corn and haystacks which would otherwise rot during a harsh winter.
8. RED TAPE. The sheer theatrics of a bunch of ridiculous rules smothers enterprise, explained Steve. Several thatchers are known to have refused future contracts with existing clients because of the way they'd been drawn up. These are craftsmen, for pity's sake!
9. A bundle of straw laid straight for thatching
10. 200 years and counting, that's if we include the next generation of thatchers, i.e., Steve's son plus a nephew of his.
Finally, and by the way you don't have to answer this one. The term 'It's raining cats and dogs' is said to have its origins from the early years of thatching, when cats and dogs would cuddle in thatched roofs during storms and then be washed out during heavy rains. Thatched roofs slant. Hardly the ideal place to seek shelter, but it makes for a fun story nonetheless.

It was a shame that things went the way they did. But we had Steve who more than made up for what we didn't get to see on the video.

Martin Haydn Roberts (ESFH 3860)
September 2018
LETTERS FROM LEIGH by Jen and Ed Simpson
U3A members, Jen and Ed Simpson, are also part of the team of volunteers at Leigh Heritage Centre where Jen acts as Project Manager. The Centre recently came into possession of a tin box (mostly containing letters) kindly donated by a relative of the family to whom it once belonged. Snapshots of the family and others mementoes (including a family tree supplied by our very own Eric Jude) made for a very interesting afternoon's talk.

The letters date from 1874 where Juliana Stuart King was writing to her youngest son Robert Stuart King (known in the family as Bob) during his time as a pupil at Felsted School in Essex. On leaving the school and studying for a degree in theology at university, Robert Stuart takes holy orders. Ordained by his uncle Edward King, Bishop of Lincoln (younger brother of Walker King, Robert Stuart's father), he then became rector of St James', Grimsby in 1889. There is a pattern emerging, as you will see.

The letters continue and form the background to the two families, the Kings and the Stuarts - Stuart being Juliana's maiden name. Juliana was proud of her Stuart lineage and being a strong-minded woman she obviously felt she needed to 'keep things in the family'. (Future generations used it as their middle name).

Juliana's husband Walker was already a minister when they married in 1850. By 1851, the Kings were at Stone near Gravesend in Kent, where Walker was assistant curate to his father (also called Walker) who was otherwise residing at Walcot, Bath with the rest of the brood during the time the census was taken. Walker junior became rector of St Clement's, Leigh-on-Sea in 1860 and continued as Canon until his death in 1892; Juliana dying on Christmas Day 1896, aged 78).

Robert had been curate to his father shortly before his death, taking over as rector, and afterwards as Canon of St Clements for the rest of his life - like his father. Their time being spent not just as priests, but caring for the people of Leigh.

The letters laid the groundwork for Letters from Leigh. Published last year, the book explores the history of both families. Highly recommended for those with a Leigh connection, or simply because it happens to be a thoroughly good read. Enquiries with Leigh Heritage Centre as to availability.
Martin Haydn Roberts (ESFH 3860)

Note from the Editor - See book review of Letters from Leigh which appeared in the December 2017 edition number 163 page 8 of The Essex Historian.
July 2018
WOMEN'S LAND ARMY - by Carol Harris
If you like your talks delivered with gusto and passion then you should have been here in July when Carol Harris spoke about the Women's Land Army. The year is 1917 and 100s of women are being asked to serve their country and work as land girls, for the lads who normally do the work are away fighting. Britain is in crisis on the food front given that the war had gone on longer than expected. This was hard, dirty work but that never fazed them, the girls who were willing to do the work - and do it well. And what they didn't know (the technicalities) they learnt on the job, including dealing with tractors that played up, which was frequent according to one girl who had the honour of dealing with the 'the cursed Fordson' during her time as a Land Girl. She was one of the few who were born and brought up in the countryside, unlike most girls who came from literally all walks of life.

1917-19. The raising of hemlines to counter the possibility of dirtying one's skirt proved totally impractical: it was time for a rethink. The Land Girls needed clothing similar to men's; three-quarter-length corduroy breeches, long woollen socks, all-weather gabardine jackets and woollen cloaks, boots and wellingtons, and sometimes a tie for special occasions, like a march past in London to show the nation women were 'doing their bit'. What we see from the many posters (smiling faces as the sun goes down) is a myth, a sort of Alice in Wonderland version of how things really were. Reality was work and keep on working whatever the task might be. For many this was a whole new experience, something they would never have done had it not been for the war. Some never went home once the war ended; their lives were here now, in the countryside amongst the many friends they'd made, including boyfriends they plan to marry.

1939-50. The Land Girls had come a long way but it didn't end with the Great War. The Second World War asked the same of them again, only now it was mostly their daughters who took up the challenge. By then, at least, the machinery was acres ahead of the ones their mums had to put up with! A splendid statue of a Land Girl and a 'Timber Jill' stands in the grounds of the National Arboretum at Alrewas in Staffordshire. Set amongst 60 hectares of stunning woodland and gardens, the statue is one of 300 memorials honouring men and women who served the nation. You can see a picture of the statue by going to the web and putting in: Women's Land Army - Wikipedia.
Martin Haydn Roberts (ESFH 3860)
June 2018
THE GREAT FIRE OF LONDON - by David Williams
David Williams spoke about the blaze in 1666 that well-nigh destroyed the Capital. The Great Fire of London spread throughout the City and on to its outer limits within practically the blinking of an eye, so rapid in fact, that people hardly had time to escape the flames that threatened to engulf their homes: 97 churches and 13,000 houses were razed to the ground over an area of some 160 hectares. At least 9 people died during the blaze.
'Where could they escape to?' commented Samuel Pepys in his diary of September 1666. The recent drought and the strength of the wind from the east were the demons behind the fire, close enough to Samuel's house to make him decide it was time to leave, but not before securing all his belongings (including gold to the value of £2,350) and take the boat (arrangements secured) and head for Woolwich and safety. By then everyone was fleeing for their lives. As we have seen, some didn't make it. Samuel Pepys's diary gives a vivid account of what took place, caused by a spark from a bakery in Pudding Lane. The Lord Mayor of London, one Thomas Bloodworth, dismissed the fire as nothing and went back to bed. Stupidity? But then he'd never been credited with much else. You might say the same for others.

This was a tragedy, absolutely, though it wasn't a lesson which was learned. Timber-built, pitch-coated houses, warehouses of oil, tallow and spirits, narrow streets and passageways, that was London before the fire, and so it was afterwards. The City Fathers wanted things that way.
Martyn Haydn Roberts (ESFH 3860)
May 2018
The Medway Queen - her history and restoration - by Mark Bathurst
Many a baby-boomer smiles when they think of the Medway Queen, climbing on board with the family and a boat-load of other passengers at Southend Pier to spend time at Margate along the coast in Kent. The journey itself was part of the fun - watching the paddles on either side of her. We loved it as kids. But this proud little vessel was more than just a pleasure steamer.

During her time at sea, the Medway Queen saw service at the evacuation of Dunkirk as part of the 'little ships' whose 100s of crewmen fought valiantly during World War 2. Fitted with guns, she successfully shot down 3 enemy aircraft. She also spent time as a minesweeper. Her principal claim to fame (for that's what it was), is that she managed to save the lives of over 7,000 soldiers and sailors, 'more than any other vessel below the size of a destroyer'.

As a youngster she seems to have been a bit accident-prone. On one occasion (1929) we find her getting into an argument with the pier. Join the club, Miss Medway, you were'nt the first. All this and more from our speaker, Mark Bathurst, on a boat that was everything to everyone who has sailed with her during her time at sea. But the story doesn't end here.

Heroine, pleasure craft. For all sorts of reasons she is a ship worth preserving, and that is exactly what happened in 1963 when the Medway Queen was scheduled to be scrapped by her last owner. Backed by the Daily Mail and a number of public and private organisations, enough money was raised (£15,000 initially) to secure the ship's future and from there restoration began. Funds were significantly boosted when the National Lottery Heritage Memorial Fund gave a grant of £1.8 million to restore the ship's hull. Work continues at Gillingham in Kent.

Reading from an already prepared script wasn't what I expected, not from someone as knowledgeable as Mark. I think it's a fair criticism as I wasn't the only one who felt like this. Other than that, I'm sure all 52 of us in the audience enjoyed recalling the time when this spirited 94 year old was as much a part of the scene as the Southend pier is today.

There are plans which could see her returning to Southend. Now that would be something.
For more information about the Medway Queen see
Martin Haydn Roberts (ESFH 3860)
April 2018
The Brushmakers Society - by Ken Doughty
The National Society of Brushmakers and General Workers saw its beginnings in Manchester in 1747. From there the Society went through several name changes, gaining in popularity and increasing its membership as it grew. By 1983 the NSBGW had merged with the Furniture, Timber and Allied Trades Union which in turn became part of the GMB Trade Union. Ken's interest came after he discovered he had brushmaker ancestors. He now runs a Family History Society, one which allows others whose forebears were also brushmakers to share what they have and at the same time understand what it was like being a brushmaker when their man was learning his craft and honing his skills.

To put you in the picture as to the way it operated as an organisation, unlike guilds and livery companies, the Brushmakers was in fact a Trade Union, the first in the country as it happens. It ran on the same lines as its counterparts by providing mutual support and protection to its members, something the society has always done, though at a pretty high price if we go back to what it cost in 1880 - 20 shillings a year, take the cost or you're not a member. Most dug deep into their pockets and decided to subscribe. Some brushmakers were itinerants, journeyman/tramps who went from town to town looking for work: they were often called tramps because they were on the move. Using the term was not a slight on their character.

London, arguably, could be seen as the centre of the trade. The core of its manufacture was made up mostly of items like hairbrushes, nailbrushes, toothbrushes, clothes brushes, shoe brushes, paint and artists' brushes, plus a whole range of other products to do with jobs for both inside and outside the home. This was highly skilled work - the more intricate stages were often done by women, either at home or in factories. It took up to 4 hours to make a toothbrush: we're talking 'handmade' and not what they roll out nowadays in most parts of China, which is where it all began. Or was it the Greeks or the Romans who got there first, as one author suggests, before countries like Germany, Holland and France were making brushes, as evidenced by the number of line drawings and woodcuts from the 16th-17th centuries?

Many of the factories were based in the East End of London - and some were still trading in the 1990s. The East End therefore might be the first port of call when looking for those ancestors who were brushmakers. For more information see
Martin Haydn Roberts (ESFH 3860)
February 2018
Education and the Agricultural Poor - by Tony Tuckwell
The passing of the Education Act in 1870 made it compulsory that every child between the ages of 5 to 12 should go to school. Although it was not free - the cost per child was around 2 pence a week (old money) which went towards schooling - it opened up opportunities that were not there before. But what use was education to a community made up mostly of working families who were amongst the lowest paid in the country - starvation wages further amplified by the dictates of the weather; when you could not work, you did not get paid.

Children were expected to earn their keep, and they did, some from as young as 4 were already working, as evidenced by the lack of attendance in the school log book. Education, therefore, was not welcomed by countryfolk. And neither by the parish purse, as sons helped their fathers, poaching and smuggling during an exceptionally harsh season. Pride before a fall in other words.

Typical examples of the types of jobs children were expected to do were: picking stones to repair the roads (usually against their will), gleaning, gathering acorns as winter fodder for pigs, pea-picking, harvesting beet, picking potatoes, scaring birds from the fields during the sowing of spring corn and, perhaps the most irksome and dangerous, struggling behind the reins of a pair of lumbering giants to plough the fields. If no one else was available, they had to do it - we are talking sons and not daughters by the way. Even as late as the 1930s picking stones was still common practice in one village in Suffolk - again for use on the roads.

One can understand why even those children who did go to school were often absent during harvest time when all hands were needed to gather the crops. Absenteeism had always been a problem in rural communities. If the numbers dropped significantly schools were forced to close. Remember, too, that some children had to walk 3-5 miles and back every day.

Free elementary schooling finally went through in 1891. By then, many of these families had already left the land. The pastures elsewhere were proving far more fruitful. Desertion, however, was not new. Way before the 1870s others had done the same driven by the need to improve their lives by breaking free from generations who were little more than the farmer's workhorse, there to be exploited season after season.

There is so much more to this story that needs telling - maybe as a separate article in a future copy of the Family Historian!

Many thanks to our speaker Tony Tuckwell who always delivers.
Martin Haydn Roberts (ESFH 3860)

Note from the Editor
Readers might like to know that further legislation was instigated in 1877 and 1880 which prohibited the employment of children under 10 years old and children up to 13 (subject to some exemptions) were required to attend school.
January 2018
Canals: their beginnings and beyond - by Bob Delgano
This month's speaker was Bob Delgarno who included barges as part of his talk following similar lines to one given previously by Tony Earle who dealt exclusively with the history of barges. Let's concentrate instead on canals since that made up the bulk of Bob's talk.

Bridgewater and Brindley are the two names one looks to when it comes to canals in Britain, money and genius working together to devise a means of moving stock from one location to the next, initially for the benefit of Francis Egerton, 3rd Earl of Bridgewater (to give him his full title),who had land near Worsley where he had coal he wished to transport overland to Manchester. The Earl had seen the benefits this might give having earlier visited Holland where canals were the norm, and had been for centuries. Work began in 1759. Brindley, as an engineer, did nothing by halves, the striking 183 metre aqueduct crossing the Irwell, a staggering achievement at a time when manpower was all there was. There then followed 35 years of prosperity, not only for the Earl but for others who recognised the benefits this might have both for investment and for business.

Transporting goods by road was costly and time consuming when set against canals that could offer a cheap and efficient alternative. More and more businesses used them once the network expanded. To give some idea of the extent of 'canal mania', as some critics called it, by 1790 4,000 miles of inland waterways had been completed. A spider's web of connections meant that goods could be carried in huge quantities throughout the kingdom, in some instances straight to the doorstep of a chain of businesses. They also provided other advantages. Factories could offload stock at points along the way or for the purposes of getting them to ports for export. That prosperity was finally challenged with the coming of the railways. Even then, canals were still being constructed. The railways didn't immediately take away trade but they set the seal for what was to come.

It hasn't all gone the way of the railways. Suez and Panama, consider how vital they are to shipping and the quantities that can be carried by means of containerization where volume upon volume of merchandise is distributed on a scale that outstrips all other methods.

Here in the UK, canals are mostly about leisure and escaping from life's rat race. Some, however, want it both ways, running several companies from their luxury bespoke narrowboat whilst sipping a glass or two of champers as they check online for stocks and shares. (Prices for narrrowboats start from around 35 thousand pounds, and that's for one which is secondhand, minus all the trimmings). Compare this with the life of a bargee, say in the 1880s, a family of 6 or more kids cramped together with barely enough room between them whereas Mr Rich Guy has all the space he needs, and more. .

Bargees were constantly on the move which is why we won't always find them on the census. Bear that in mind if you have them as part of your ancestral line.
Martin Haydn Roberts (ESFH 3860)
December 2017
Southend The Way We Were - by Reg Wells
For some reason our scheduled speaker failed to turn up. Fortunately Reg Wells, one of our members, saved the day - or should that be the afternoon - with a DVD telling the story of Southend the Way We Were.

Tourism has been around for centuries, although it was only those with plenty of time and money who did so. Wealthy people spent time "taking the waters", travelling to Europe on the Grand Tour or - mostly wealthy Georgians living in London - coming to the fashionable Southend health resort. Among them was Nelson's mistress, Emma Hamilton, who, so the story goes, had rooms in Royal Terrace. He would arrive at the Nore,* she would be there to greet him, and they would then make their way across the Thames and spend the weekend together. All very ...! Well, you decide.

The film, with 1950s style commentary, took us through the many changes that have come about since. We see footage from the turn of the century where local dignitaries are parading around in all their finery, most sporting a top hat and lots of facial hair. Look to another part of the film where the bandstand is still being used to provide entertainment. Sadly, that's now gone and will never come back. Later we see film of families having fun at Peter Pan's Playground. Now known as Adventure Island, it continues to provide the same fun-based amusements. On 31 October, 1967, the Queen Mother came to Southend for the opening of the new Civic Centre. She gave a speech recorded at the time of the event, which is included on the DVD. Other parts of the film also include sound recordings. All this and more on the Southend that used to be. Thanks Reg. I'm sure everyone enjoyed seeing the film.

Martin Haydn Roberts (ESFH 3860)
*The Nore is a sandbank where the river Thames meets the North Sea and in the days of sail was a rendezvous point for the Royal Navy.
November 2017
History of Photography in London's East End - by Stefan Dickers
Stefan Dickers' fine collection of nearly 100 photos, from the early years of photography (the studio approach to picture taking), to the 'fly on the wall' where the use of lightweight cameras allowed photographers the freedom to capture the scene in a more natural way, as it is now where practically everyone owns a camera. It was all there in Stefan's portfolio.

First, a look back to Victorians times. Vast areas of the Capital were being developed - traffic had been a problem for some time. This was already happening by the 1870s. Conservation only applied to those with money and influence and even then the pressure was relentless and many eventually sold their property. For the East End it was slum clearance and not everyone was rehoused. Most lived in tenement blocks down dark alleyways. This was subsistence living if ever there was. Hundreds of families ended up on the streets. The cameraman was often there when it happened, chronicalling the lives of those who had nothing.

It wasn't all doom and gloom though the future was still mostly suspect, as jobs were scarce if people weren't needed when the work wasn't there, which also affected traders and other small businesses. As one old timer commented during an interview made in the 1950s: 'We did the depths, alright! Ma, Pa and 10 of us kids plus a bunch of furringers (foreigners) squeezed together in one room in Tenter Street, Spitalfields. If those plaguee rats didn't have you, time did. Most of us, see, was dead before we was 30. Two world wars and a depression, that too? Devil's Dust (smoke from thousands of chimneys). What a killer that was!' And it's still like that, the poverty and lack of jobs.

The East End has a rich history which is why numerous authors have written about it, some from personal experience like the American writer Jack London and of course Dickens, who grew up there. Images however often have a far greater impact and some of the finest were taken using cumbersome, heavyweight cameras. Think of that the next time you look at a photograph of 100 years ago.

The East End is particularly well documented and a lot of that material is housed at the Bishopsgate Institute, a high percentage of which came from private donations. Whether it's photos, newspaper articles, pamphlets, journals, books or catalogued information, they have it. Visit the website or drop in the next time you're in London. As Stefan might say: 'We are the East End.' And he would know as he's the Archives Manager of the BI.

Useful websites:, and
Martin Haydn Roberts (ESFH 3860)
October 2017
Forty Years at Kodak - by Tony Earle
Tony Earle saw many technological breakthroughs during the 40 years he spent with Kodak as a photographic scientist. His laid back style was much in evidence as he gave his talk using a combination of pictures and cameras, a number of which were British made products. Aside from the two Box Brownies, an earlier version and one made in Canada, on display was an Instamatic and the infamous Disc camera - hardly a success given that the images was so small and the quality of the picture also suffered. Few were sold and Kodak soon withdrew the product.

First, a back view of photography through the various methods that were used to create an image. Among those that are credited are the Calotype (from 1841), the Daguerreotype (1841-1855), the Albumen print (1850-1880), a process using egg to coat the surface of the paper, the Ambrotype (1852-1890), a glass plated image which has since become rare in this country, the Tintype (1856-1930) and the Carte-de-Visite (1860-1910); these last two processes being card-mounted were cheap to produce, which is why they sold so well - the Tintype on both sides of the Atlantic - and lasted for as long as they did.

Photography was initially a hobby for those with money, which in due course included the professional, those like photo journalists and studio photographers.

The American George Eastman looked to photography as something that should be available to everyone. He fulfilled his own promise when he invented the Box Brownie (1888), a preloaded camera offering 100 exposures and a number counter (1892) on roll film that could be loaded in daylight. This was a breakthrough in camera technology like no other; a process that was simple to use and one which was no longer exclusively in the hands of the professional. Although initially expensive at 5 guineas, by the early 1900s the price had come down to the 5 shilling model: 'You press the button....we do the rest'. These were pictures now being taken by ordinary folk. Millions of our ancestors would have owned one. They were simple to use so no wonder we see so many smiling faces looking back at us.

Eastman knew he needed to expand the company's business interests beyond America. Coming to Britain seemed the obvious choice for global expansion and by 1891 he chose a site at Harrow. (During the first few years Kodak were there the site became the centre for spent cameras). But Eastman had far grander plans; expand the factory; develop a range of products to supply the chain of shops throughout London. This could all be done from Harrow. The Grand Union Canal was close by, road and rail links were improving, offering a more distant supply chain that could be fed. For nearly 100 years, Kodak became the dominant brand within photographic manufacture, none of which could ever have taken place had it not been for the Box Brownie. This one product alone made Eastman into a multi-millionaire.

The last official Brownie was manufactured as a 110 cartridge film model in Brazil in 1986. .
If that's not a success story, then what is!
Martin Haydn Roberts (ESFH 3860)

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